One Veteran-One Standard - Guiding Principles > CFB Suffield - Chemical Exposure



Veterans that took part in training or testing at Suffield Experimental Station
prior to the 1960’s and those that took part in training or testing after 1960’s at CFB
Suffield Ralston Alberta, should be made aware of the following information.

Most of the testing which occurred in the early years at Suffield Experimental Station,
during the 1940’s - 1960’s was done using real chemical warfare agents, and toxic
solvents on live troops, who had no idea what they were being exposed to. However, the
Department of National Defence, Health Canada, Canadian Forces Surgeon Generals,
Suffield Staff, and the Canadian Government knew.

Before chemical testing was conducted, Suffield Staff required permission from higher
means, the Department of National Defence, Canadian Forces Surgeon General,
Health Canada, and the Canadian Government. Testing was first under-taken as an
excuse to ready for war, this time the Second World War in Europe. Even though studies
had been done on warfare agents up to this time (1940’s), it was already known what
mustard agent could do to the human body. An agreement was put in place not to use
mustard agent or any other warfare agents on humans during war or any other time, as a
result of the gassings that took place during the First World War. A treaty was put in
place and signed in 1925 by Canada.

Those veterans that suffered through the early years of the 1940’s, during testing of
mustard agents mixed with other chemicals and items, suffered inhumane treatment,
without medical aid in many cases. The Department of National Defence, Canadian
Forces Surgeon Generals, Suffield Staff, Health Canada, and the Canadian Government
erred, and are guilty of neglect and suppressing evidence. They failed to record this
information into medical documents, and personal files in some cases. This was not a
simple error, as it has been repeated throughout the last forty years. These denials
allowed the Government to avoid awarding medical pensions in large numbers to
veterans who were entitled, and who should have been advised of chemicals they were
exposed too.

The treaty was ignored by some countries, including Canada, during the early years of the
Second World War and continues to be presently. Nothing was done to stop or
discourage the practice of the Suffield Staff, Department of National Defence, Canadian
Forces Surgeon Generals, Health Canada and the Canadian Government, which was
referred to as testing, troop/test, troop/user/trials, or exercises.

This practice continues to this very day. We have witnessed countless accounts of the
Government trying to cover their tracks for wrongdoings, which were recently brought
out in the open by the Canadian Forces Ombudsman, condemning the government for
their inhumane action on soldiers during the 1940’s.

The new Ombudsman for National Defence uncovered yet another cover-up by the
Government during the Gulf War. Members of the Canadian Armed Forces Engineers
came down with unknown ailments, collectively known as “Gulf War syndrome”, which
the Department of National Defence, Canadian Forces Surgeon Generals, and the
Canadian Government dismissed as nothing. The Ombudsman once again found evidence
to confirm that they had been exposed to chemicals.

Then we have the quagmire of the Canadian Forces Base Gagetown in New Brunswick,
in which the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Government kept Agent
Orange testing concealed from members of the Armed Forces.

All orders come from the top level, that is, the Government of Canada, and the Canadian
Forces Surgeon Generals. They are responsible for the safety and health of the members
of the Canadian Armed Forces according to their mandate.

However, evidence shows that the Department of National Defence, Suffield Staff,
Canadian Forces Surgeon Generals, Health Canada and the Canadian Government
planned an out for themselves in the years to follow.

(a) The Plaintiffs’ claims alleged in the Statement of claim are barred by the 10 year
ultimate limitation period in section 3(b) of the limitations Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. L-
12, and the 15- year ultimate limitation period in section 15 of the limitation Act,
S.O. 2002, c. 24, both of which apply pursuant to section 32 of the Crown
Liability and Proceedings Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-50

(b) The plaintiffs’ claims alleged in the Statement of Claim are barred by the sixmonth
limitation period in section 269 of the National Defence Act, R.S.C. 1985,c

(c) The plaintiffs’ claims alleged in the Statement of Claim are barred by the sixmonth
limitation period in The Public Authorities Protection Act, R.S.A. 1942,c.
138 am and The Public Authorities Protection Act , R.S.O. 1937, c. 135 as am.

(d) The plaintiffs’ claims alleged in the Statement of Claim are barred pursuant to
section 8 of the Crown Liability and Proceedings Act, R.S.O. 1985, c. C-50 which
provides, inter alia, that the Crown is not liable “in respect of anything done or
omitted in the exercise of any power or authority exercisable by the Crown…for
the purpose of the defence of Canada or of training, or maintaining the efficiency
of, the Canadian Forces”

The Government is saying they are not responsible for you or your problems, which
may have been contributed to you by factors, which occurred during your Regular Force
Service, training, peacetime or in war. You must understand that the Canadian
Government only appears to care for its veterans. They respond only when under the

Any issues regarding the Armed Forces or veterans take low priority. If new planes are
required, you wait while the Prime Minister buys a new one for himself. The military is
getting what they need now, because the Government is being watched, with our men
and women fighting and dying over-seas. How long was it before the Merchant Navy
was recognized? We still have veterans from all wars that should be receiving pensions
and medical help, but the Government has nothing but time on its side as they pass the
ball to the next group that do not care about the past, let alone the future. Remember
this, your present Government is against helping you as shown in the Government’s
Notice of Motion in Federal Court, this year 2008.

There is, at the present time, a class action before the Federal Court of Canada,
fighting for your rights and your suffering as caused by the Department of National
Defence, Suffield Staff, Canadian Forces Surgeon Generals, Health Canada, and the
Canadian Government. The class action is for all veterans who were exposed to
chemicals, including HC smoke (banned by the Montreal Protocol due to its toxic
chemicals); toxic simulants and training agents made up by Suffield Staff, which are not
listed in Canadian Forces Medical Order’s (CFMO’S). The class action is being handled
by Merchant Law Group.

Below, is a list of some chemicals used at Suffield Experimental Station, now called
Canadian Forces Base Suffield, at Ralston Alberta from 1941 to present date, and at
CFB Wainwright during the 1960’s. If you were subjected to any of these chemicals, or
served at Wainwright or Suffield during your Regular Force Service, and you feel your
current conditions might relate to your chemical exposure, you may qualify to join the
class action.

CODE NAMED VACUUM - 1968 1st Battalion Queens Own Rifles

Those that attended were exposed to the following chemicals, (total of 60,000 plus lbs.)

1. Mustard Agent – Liquid- TA66/1 (Y) 13% (Poison) ** Very Toxic
2. Diethyl Phthalate – Solvent – Risk uncertain
3. Tri-2-ethylhexyl Phosphate - Toxic Solvent
4. Tri-2-ethylhexyl Phosphate mixed with 0.16% O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile -
Toxic Solvent
5. CS2 Powder- O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile - with anti-wetting agent?
6. CS1 Powder- O- chlorobenzalmalononitrile - with-5% Silica Cabosil- Health
Risk, Respiratory
7. CS Vapour- O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile - will be produced by means of
venture generator attached to exhaust manifold of vehicle. (Heating chemicals)
(Heating CS Gas creates cyanide poison) (Carbon Monoxide) Very Toxic
8. Tributyl Phosphate**- (TBP) mixed with 10% O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile
(Liquid & Vapour) - Toxic Solvent
9. 7% O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS)-mixed with Methylene Chloride (Vapour)
** Toxic Solvent
10. Butyl Mercaptan-mixed with Methylene Chloride** (Vapour) Very Toxic
11. Amyl Acetate-mixed with Methylene Chloride** (Vapour) Very Toxic Solvent
12. Benzyl Salicylate – Solvent the toxicological properties of this material have
not been fully investigated.
13. Diethylene Glycol (Poison) - Very Toxic Solvent
14. Hexachloroethane (HC) Smoke People/Health A-3-6 ** Very Toxic
** Probable cancer causing

Not all chemicals listed are shown in Canadian Forces Medical Orders as training
agents, except for O-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS gas).
HC Smoke** is banned by the Montreal Protocol due to its toxic chemicals.
HC Smoke** is still being used by the Canadian Armed Forces, under orders to wear
gas mask while being exposed.

Most of these chemicals are ignored by Veterans Affairs when handling your claims,
they are aware of them but will not bring the matter forward on your behalf. Members
of the Boards refuse to address either their toxicity, or their use. In most cases, these
members have no qualifications to deal with or understand their health hazards.
There is no known test on humans, being exposed to all of these chemicals over
such a short period, nor their long-term or short-term effects on humans, nor of
exposure to mixing-chemicals, and heating chemicals, as in this case.


Phosgene - Highly toxic. Severe poison, Inhalation may be fatal. Odour dose will not
give sufficient warning of lethal concentrations. Symptoms may be delayed up to 24
hours. Concentrations below 1ppm may be harmful. Severe eye and skin irritant.
Corrosive – may cause burns. Decomposes to further toxic compounds in the presence of
water. A chlorinated compound. (Suffield)

Bayol Oil – Irritant, risk of serious damage to eyes. Prevent contact with skin. Do not
breath vapour. Material may be irritating to mucous membrane and upper respiratory
track. Aspiration into lungs will cause lipid pneumonia. (Wainwright)

TOF – (tri-2- ethylhexyl Phosphate) – Spray hazard, may act as an irritant or be
harmful. Skin redness, pain. Eyes redness, pain. Chemical dangers; the substance
decomposes on heating, producing toxic fumes of phosphine and phosphorous oxides.
Reacts with oxidants. (Wainwright, Suffield, Sarcee)

Amyl Acetate – Vapour hazard, harmful, flammable liquid (LDLO= 1500/kg,
TLV=525mg/m3). The solution irritates the skin, eyes, and the mucous membranes.
Inhalation of the vapour can cause headaches, tiredness and irritation of the lung. Longterm
exposure causes coughing, chest pain, vertigo, nausea, and eczema. Irritates the
conjunctiva, the nose and the throat. Can cause narcosis. (Suffield)

Benzyl Salicylate – Hyperpigmentation of the face or exposed skin. (Suffield)

CS 1 Powder – Aerosol, to produce irritation of the eyes and respiratory system.
Containing silica (Cabosil). (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: “Although described
as a non- lethal weapon for crowd control, many studies have raised doubts about
this classification. As well as creating severe pulmonary damage; CS can also
significantly damage the heart and liver.” “When CS is metabolized, cyanide can be
detected in human tissue. (36) According to the United States Army Centre for
Health Promotions and Preventive Medicine, CS emits “very toxic fumes” when
heated to decomposition, and at specified concentrations CS gas is an immediate
danger to life and health. They also state that those exposed to CS gas should seek
medical attention immediately.) Note: the heating of CS gas took place during
troop/user test code named Vacuum in 1968. (Suffield, Wainwright, Sarcee)

CS 2 Powder – It is CS 1 which has been treated with an anti-wetting agent, which
makes the material extremely persistent. Painful, burning eyes, larcrimation,
conjunctivitis, erythematic eyelids, blepharospasms; irritated throat, cough, chest
constriction, headaches, erythematic vesiculation of the skin. (Suffield, Wainwright,

Fluorescent Dye – Kiton Yellow FF – N/A (Suffield)

TBP – Tributyl Phosphate** – Ground hazard, more volatile than (TOF). Irritant, or
may be harmful. Skin redness, pain. Eyes redness, pain. On heating produces toxic
fumes. (Suffield, Wainwright, Sarcee)

TA66/1 (Y) - 13% HT (60 parts 4 (2, 2’ dichlorodiethyl sulphide), 40 parts T724 (2, 2’ di
(8 chloroethylthio) diethylether)) mixed in DEP (diethyl phthalate) =TA66/1 (y) =
LIQUID MUSTARD GAS**. This vesicants (blister gases) – Skin systemic poisoning
may result from inhalation, dermal exposure and ingestion. Some CW agents can
penetrate the skin. This mainly concerns liquids but in some cases also gases and
aerosols. Solid substances penetrate the skin slowly unless they happen to be mixed with
a suitable solvent. Local damage to the skin may promote absorption. Inhalation;
Chemical agents may be inhaled, or ingested (e.g.) through contaminated food or water).
The respiratory system is affected by inhalation. The eyes are particularly sensitive to
chemical agents and may cause the development of symptoms very quickly.
Psychological stress may itself mimic some of the effects of chemical weapons. Very
toxic and corrosive. Extremely hazardous material. Known human carcinogen. May be
fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. May cause serious eye and lung
• Used in Project Adobe 1966 2nd Battalion Queens Own Rifles
• Used in Troop/test User/Trial Code - Named Vacuum 1968 1st Battalion
Queens Own Rifles (Suffield)

Chloracetophenone – CN - Gas** – It is of higher toxicity than CS gas, which is (Ochlorobenzylidene
Malononitril). Burning sensation, lachrymation, inflammation and
oedema of the eyelids. Blepharospasm, photophobia, temporary blindness. Visual
impairment and pulmonary oedema. Drops or splashes on the skin can cause
papulovesicular dermatitis and superficial skin burns. Used in CAF before CS.
(Suffield, Wainwright, Sarcee)

Hexachloroethane** – Smoke, high concentrations of smoke generated are extremely
dangerous. High concentrations of zinc chloride smoke generated under this condition
have caused fatalities. (Found in HC Smoke) & (Smoke Grenades) (Suffield,
Wainwright, Sarcee)

Zinc Chloride** – The toxicity of zinc chloride is mainly due to the formation of the
strongly acidic Hcl, but is also to a lesser extent due to thermal lesions. The acidic Hcl
vapour causes lesions of the mucous membranes of the upper airways. The damage and
clinical symptoms following zinc chloride exposure therefore appear immediately after
the start of the exposure. However, damage to the lower airways also occurs and may
result in delayed effects. These have been attributed to the presence of fine zinc chloride
particles and phosgene. Acute effects, highly irritating and may be very
dangerous when inhaled. Symptoms include dyspnoea, retrosternal pain, hoarseness,
stridor, larghrymation, cough, expectoration and occasionally haemoptysis. Cyanos is and
bronchopneumonia may develop. It is caustic to mucous membranes and can cause sub
acute interstitial fibrosis. By-products gases indicate the presence of suspected
carcinogens. (Found in HC Smoke) & (Smoke Grenades) (Suffield, Wainwright,

Cadmium** – Probably carcinogenic. Cadmium has moderate acute toxicity,
producing gastrointestinal or pulmonary irritation effects from ingestion or inhalation.
respectively. Sub chronic and chronic exposure to cadmium have been associated with
renal, cardiovascular, endocrine, hepatic, bone, hematological, and immunological
effects. Respiratory conditions include bronchiolitis and emphysema. (Suffield)

Lead** – Toxic if inhaled. (Found in HC Smoke) Lead Poisoning (also known as
saturnism, plumbism, or painter’s colic) is a medical condition caused by increase levels
of the metal lead in the blood. Lead may cause irreversible neurological damage as well
as renal disease, cardiovascular effects, and reproductive toxicity. (Suffield, Wainwright,

Arsenic** – Evidence of carcinogenicity. (Found in HC Smoke) Arsenic exposure in
the workplace occurs through inhalation, ingestion, dermal or eye contact. Chronic
exposure to arsenic can lead to dermatitis, mild pigmentation keratosis of the skin,
vasospasticity, gross pigmentation with hyperkeratinization of exposed areas, wart
formation, decreased nerve conduction velocity, and lung cancer. Acute exposure can
cause lung distress and death. (Suffield, Wainwright, Sarcee)

Mercury** – Very Toxic Historically, short-term exposure to high concentrations of
mercury vapour caused harmful effects on the nervous, digestive and respiratory systems,
and the kidneys. In most cases, exposure occurred when mercury was heated.
Initial exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapour produce symptoms similar to
“metal fume fever” including fatigue, fever, and chills. Respiratory system effects include
cough, shortness of breath, tightness, and burning pains in the chest and inflammation of
the lungs. Occupational exposure to 1 to 44 mg/m3 of mercury vapour for 4 to 8 hours
caused chest pain, cough, coughing up blood, impaired lung function, and inflammation
of the lungs (pulmonary edema) has occurred. Exposure to high, but unspecified,
concentrations of mercury vapour has caused death due to respiratory failure. All of the
reported deaths resulted from inhaling mercury vapours formed upon heating mercury.

Carbon Monoxide – Poison Recognized development toxicant suspected cardiovascular
or blood toxicant, neurotoxcant, reproductive toxicant, and respiratory toxicant. (Suffield,
Wainwright, Sarcee)

Tabun (GA) ** – Very Toxic Nerve Agent, is a man made chemical warfare classified
as a nerve agent. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known
chemical warfare agents.
• Used in 1968 Suffield, just prior to Troop/test user/trial Vacuum.

Sarin (GB) ** – Very Toxic Nerve Agent Sarin, also known by its NATO designation
of GB, is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is a nerve agent. As a
chemical weapon, it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations
in UN Resolution 687. It is estimated that sarin is more than 500 times more toxic than
• Used in Suffield during 1968, Rapid Tan just prior to troop/test user/trial

Soman (GD) ** – Very Toxic Nerve Agent Soman is a human-made chemical warfare
agent. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare
agents. They are similar to pesticides (insect killers) called organophosphates in terms of
how they work and the kinds of harmful effects they cause. However, nerve agents are
much more potent than organophosphates pesticides. Soman is known also as “GD”
• Used in Suffield in 1968, just prior to troop/test user/trial Vacuum

VX** – Very Toxic Nerve Agent VX S- 2 [diisopropylamino] O-ethyl
methylphosphonothioate is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a
nerve agent. As a chemical weapon, it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by
the United Nations in UN Resolution 687. The VX nerve agent is the most well known of
the V-series of nerve agents and is considered an area denial weapon due to its physical
• Used in Suffield in 1968, just prior to troop/test user/trial Vacuum

Serratia Marcescens – Can be Fatal Source Public Health Canada, MSDS-Infectious
Substance. Serratia Marcescens Pathogenicity: Opportunistic infection of the
endocardium, eyes, blood, wounds, urinary and respiratory tracts; infections are often
severe or fatal; Notorious nosocomial pathogens, particularly S. Marcescens which is
responsible for 4% of hospital acquired pneumonias.
• Used as a simulant organism (Suffield)

Caramiphen PAM Chloride Injection – Anticonvulsants for organophosphorus
Used on volunteers (Queen Own Rifles) (Suffield)

Cyanogen Chloride (C.K.)** – Poison Inhalation hazard
Used in June 1945 w/M-78 Bomb (three trials) (Suffield)

HTV (Allopene) ** – Thicken Mustard Gas Vesicant and Blister Agent very Toxic.
Used February 1943 (Suffield)

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) ** – Very Toxic- Used as Chemical Warfare Agent.
Used March 1943 Suffield

Choking Agent (CG)** – Very Toxic- Used as Chemical Warfare Agent

Cyanogen Chorlride (CK) ** – Very Toxic- Used as Chemical Warfare Agent
Both were used in May 1943 Suffield

Levenstein (HS) ** Filled with Asbestos – Very Toxic
Used 23 May 1943 Suffield

Mustard Agent Y4-(HTV) with 0.1% Perspex** (British for Plexiglas) – Very Toxic –
Used 24 June 1943 Suffield

Chemical Shell Charged HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) – Toxic
Used July 1943 Suffield

DDT, Diol 55, and Carbon Tetrachloride** – Very Toxic
Used to control Spruce Budworm by means of aircraft spray.
Used 25 August 1944 Suffield

Compound 1080**– Very Toxic - used to kill Richardson ground Squirrels.
Used 30 June – 30 September 1946 Suffield

Benzene Hexachloride** – Very Toxic – used as a pesticide
Used 01 – 31 December 1946 Suffield

DEP, DBP, TBP, and Bayol – Toxic Solvents –
12,000 lbs used at CFB (Wainwright) 17 February 1960 Field Experiment 525
These are a select few cases in which Very Toxic Chemicals were deployed within the
boundaries of Suffield Experimental Testing Station, now called (CFB) Canadian Forces
Base Suffield. The training area is 2600 km square, and is located at Ralston Alberta.
Some toxic solvents were used at CFB Wainwright, and Sarcee training area in Calgary.

A full scope of the testing that took place within these areas will never be known. The
attempt to gather information from both Suffield and the Canadian Government has been
a very daunting task for those members who were there and suffer from the effects of
chemical exposure.

Our research has shown that the more we look, the more we find. There are hundreds of
tests, the records of which are still being withheld by our government. We strive to find
only the facts of which chemicals were used. All of our information is taken from

We are former members of the Canadian Armed Forces. We, and some of our members,
attended Suffield during our Regular Force Service. Some members suffer from exposure
to both the chemicals and chemical smoke that was used during service periods. The
above is a short list of chemicals used by the Department of National Defence, Suffield
Staff, Canadian Forces Surgeon Generals, and acknowledged by Health Canada, and the
Canadian Government.

A large number of veterans applied to Veterans Affairs for their exposures to chemical
warfare agents, toxic solvents, and HC smoke exposure. Most have been denied by the
department of Veterans Affairs who simply say, where is your evidence? This is a tough
hurdle for veterans as there was no evidence entered into their files.

Why did the officials not enter this information into a veteran’s medical or personal files?
Why were we not informed as to the dangerous chemicals, found within HC Smoke?
In the 1970’s, a report was sent to the Canadian Department of National Defence from
the United States Department of Defence regarding dangerous toxic chemicals with the
use of HC Smoke. We were not advised of this information, nor were we told to dawn
(wear) respirators during exposure, as they are required to do today.

Veterans Affairs Canada have a complete research department, yet it seems they cannot
find the information that we do. They make contact with CFB Suffield, who provides
information, which is incomplete, or a washed down version, of what really happened.
Veterans and their reports, official medical documents revealed that some veterans
suffered damaging injuries to the lungs and upper respiratory systems from inhalation, of
agents or chemicals used or other related chemical injuries. In some cases, we have
members who worked very close and in confined spaces with HC smoke. Suffield stated
that CS gas was the main training chemical used during troop/test/user/trial, code-named
Vacuum in 1968, without mentioning other chemicals that were mixed with CS. Thus
giving a more toxic chemical exposure to troops on the ground.

We all know that it was used, as well as mixed with other chemicals. Suffield staff are
not being transparent about all of the other chemicals used or mixed with 2-
chlorobenzalmalononitrile, aka (CS). There is no such thing as CS, this is a misnomer;
it is the first letter of the surnames of the two inventers.

These are not by any means all of the chemicals used at Suffield. If you have any
questions relating to other chemicals that you think you may have been exposed to, ask
our web site for an answer. We will post any chemical that is known by government
documents as being used at Suffield.

Use this list to help your own research, records, and information for Veterans Affairs
claims. Make contact with Merchant Law Group if you were there and you are fighting a
pension claim that is being denied. We are thousands of veterans who are being denied
disability pension, medical help, final compensation, and closure. Your age is not a factor
in this class action. We wish each one of you good luck, and hope this sheds some light
on your own plight. We shall remember them.


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